Maintaining an unbroken string of hits throughout the 70s and 80s, most of which she wrote, Donna holds the record for most consecutive double albums to hit 1 on the Billboard charts 3 and first female to have four 1 singles in a 12 month period; 3 as a solo artist and one as a duo with Barbra Streisand. From the age of eight, Summer sang in church choirs and city-wide choruses, and by her early twenties, was performing in musical theatre in Germany, winning parts in such highly-acclaimed shows as "Hair," "Showboat," "Godspell," and "Porgy and Bess" as well as performing with the Viennese Folk Opera.
He succeeded his father on the throne at the age of four. However, he was also a neglected child, cared for by servants.
Once he almost drowned in a pond because no one was watching him. However, his mother, Anne of Austria who caused the neglect, instilled in him a lasting fear of "crimes committed against God".
While his mother was regent the great nobles and the judges of the parlement of Paris launched a major but uncoordinated revolt the Fronde of in reaction to the centralizing policies of Louis XIII's minister Cardinal Richelieu and his successor, Mazarin. The royal family was twice driven out of Paris, and at one point Louis XIV and Anne were held under virtual arrest in the royal palace in Paris.
This civil war brought Louis XIV poverty, misfortune, fear, humiliation, cold and hunger. This shaped Bio stuff character and he would never forgive either Paris, Bio stuff nobles, or the common people.
Cardinal Mazarin was victorious in and constructed an extraordinary administration for the kingdom. Mazarin finally suppressed the Fronde and restored internal order.
The Peace of Westphaliawhich ended the Thirty Years' War, together with the Peace of the Pyreneeswhich concluded prolonged warfare with Spain, made France the leading European power. Personal Administration On Mazarin's death inLouis astounded his court by becoming his own chief minister, thereby ending the long "reign of the cardinal-ministers.
The king thereafter controlled his own government until his death, acting through his high state council conseil d'en haut and a few select ministers, whom he called or dismissed at will. The most famous and powerful of the ministers were Jean Baptiste Colbert in internal affairs and the marquis de Louvois in military matters.
Breaking with tradition, Louis excluded from his council members of his immediate family, great princes, and others of the old military nobility noblesse d'epee ; his reliance on the newer judicial nobility noblesse de robe led the duc de Saint-Simon to call this, mistakenly, "the reign of the lowborn bourgeoisie.
Marie-Therese Cardinal Mazarin Period of Glory The early personal reign of Louis was highly successful in both internal and foreign affairs.
At home the parlements lost their traditional power to obstruct legislation; the judicial structure was reformed by the codes of civil procedure and criminal procedurealthough the overlapping and confusing laws were left untouched.
Urban law enforcement was improved by creation of the office of lieutenant general of police for Paris, later imitated in other towns. Under Colbert commerce, industry, and overseas colonies were developed by state subsidies, tight control over standards of quality, and high protective tariffs.
As controller general of finances, Colbert sharply reduced the annual treasury deficit by economies and more equitable, efficient taxation, although tax exemptions for the nobility, clergy, and some members of the bourgeoisie continued.
Colbert and the king shared the idea of glorifying the monarch and monarchy through the arts. His state established or developed in rapid succession academies for painting and sculptureinscriptionsFrench artists at Romeand sciencefollowed by the Paris Observatory and the academies of architecture and music The literary Academie Francaise also came under formal royal control in Money was lavished on buildings.
In Paris the Louvre was essentially completed with the classical colonnade by Claude Perrault. In Versailles, Louis XIII's hunting lodge was transformed into a remarkable palace and park, which were copied by Louis's fellow monarchs across Europe.
When the king moved permanently to Versailles inan elaborate court etiquette was established that had the aristocracy, including former rebel princes, vying to participate in Louis's rising leve and retiring couche.
These ceremonies led to the saying that, at a distance, one could tell what was happening at the palace merely by glancing at an almanac and a watch. In foreign affairs, the young Louis XIV launched the War of Devolution against the Spanish Netherlands, claiming that those provinces had "devolved" by succession to his Spanish wife rather than to her half brother Charles II, who had inherited the Spanish crown.
The war brought him some valuable frontier towns in Flanders. The intent this time was to take revenge against Dutch intervention in the previous war and to break Dutch trade.Jiang Wang.
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Genetic EngineeringIn Bacteria: Human insulin 1. The plasmid in the bacteria is isolated, a part of it is cut off using the restriction enzyme an. History. A family outing to the cinema ended in tragedy for young Bruce Wayne.
Walking homeward, Bruce, his father, Thomas, and mother, Martha, accidentally ventured into Gotham City's notorious "Crime Alley" and were accosted by a mugger. Megan’s Biography & Stuff. My name on a tombstone.
Well, this is me. I’m 24 years old, Ohio born and bred. I grew up nine miles from Green Lawn Cemetery in Columbus, Ohio, and spent a lot of time there as a child, picking dandelions for headstones and knocking on crypts while my dad birdwatched.