Until quite recently, most scholars thought that this surprisingly complex and poignant poem was written in the 8th century or earlier, but Kevin Kiernan stirred up controversy in by asserting that the work was composed in the 11th century, and that the manuscript itself may have even been the author's working copy.
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The discussion page may contain suggestions. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Beowulf's author often uses various substitute phrases for Grendel's name like this one, the "mark-stepper," an inhabitant of the borderland. Grendel is originally found in the poem Beowulf, which is contained in the Nowell Codex.
Grendel continues to attack the Hall every night for twelve years, killing its inhabitants and making this magnificent mead-hall unusable. Beowulf hears of these attacks and leaves the Geats to destroy Grendel.
He is welcomed by King Hrothgar, who gives a banquet in celebration. Afterwards Beowulf and his warriors bed down in the mead hall to await the inevitable attack of the creature. Grendel stalks outside the building for a time, spying the warriors inside.
He then makes a sudden attack, bursting the door with his fists and continuing through the entry. The first warrior Grendel finds is still asleep, so he seizes the man and devours him. Grendel grabs a second warrior, but is shocked when the warrior grabs back with fearsome strength.
As Grendel attempts to disengage, the reader discovers that Beowulf is that second warrior. He has chosen not to use a weapon because he heard Grendel fights without one; this choice is what wins him the battle, because Grendel has a charm that protects him from every weapon.
A battle ensues, with Beowulf's warriors attempting to aid in the melee. Finally Beowulf tears off Grendel's arm, mortally wounding the creature. Grendel flees but dies in his marsh-den. There, Beowulf later engages in a fierce battle with Grendel's motherover whom he triumphs.– King of the Geats; Beowulf’s uncle Beowulf’s mother Ecgtheow Heardred Beowulf Wiglaf – The comrade of Beowulf’s that helps him kill the dragon Hronesness – Site of Beowulf’s Barrow Earnaness – Site of Beowulf’s battle with the dragon Ongentheow – Swedish king who fought Hygelac Foils and Parallel Characters from Minstrel.
Taking this to heart Beowulf symbolically casts off arrogance the following day by returning the hilt of a sword given him by Unferth who had initially challenged Beowulf upon his arrival to Heorot. The middle part of Beowulf’s life deepens the sense of Beowulf as the Germanic hero.
Beowulf and his men go to Heorot first for a formal audience with Hrothgar, second for a feast and wild party, and third, at the end of the night, for a place to bed down with their armor and weapons right beside them, ready for action.
In a famous lecture on Beowulf, Tolkien presented a rhetorically powerfully call for scholars and Beowulf as Christian and Christian Elements in the Poem “Beowulf” overall situation and conflict between the pagan and Christian religions which existed in England at that time.
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Beowulf has won a temporary boon (peace from the dragon and Grendel’s mother’s wrath) for the people of Heorot. Temporary because Wiglaf (new king) receives that special item (dragon horn) and it is unknown what actions he will take with Grendel’s mother.