History of Facebook —
Five buses during two-hour peak period 15 Average density over square-mile area within 10 to 15 miles of a large downtown Express Bus — Auto access Five to ten buses during two-hour peak period 15 Average density over square-mile tributary area, within 10 to 15 miles of a large downtown Light Rail Five minute headways or better during peak hour.
Rapid Transit Five minute headways or better during peak hour.
Commuter Rail 1 to 2 Serving very large downtown. This table, based on research by Pushkarev and Zupanindicates typical residential densities needed for various types of transit service. Such requirements are variable depending on other geographic, demographic and management factors.
Transit passengers tend to walk significantly farther nearly twice as far on average to access rail stations than bus stops.
This reflects differences in the types of services provided by these modes: Improved Transit Service Quality more comfortable vehicles and waiting areas, more frequent service, better user information, HOV Priority increases ridership and reduces density requirements.
Lower fares and wider distribution of passes for example, by neighborhood UPass programs, through which all residents pay for a transit pass through their property taxes increases ridership and reduces density requirements.
Lower-income, students, seniors and disabled populations ride transit more than average and so reduces density requirements. Expanding Commute Trip Reduction Programs will increase transit ridership and reduce density requirements. Larger and more Centralized Commercial Areas will increase transit ridership and reduce density requirements.
More Walkable neighborhoods and commercial centers increase the area conveniently accessible to transit and therefore reduce density requirements. Targeted Marketing can increase transit ridership and reduce density requirements.
There are often questions as to how far people will walk to a transit stop or station, and therefore the acceptable area that can be considered transit oriented. Experts generally conclude that transit riders will walk up to a quarter-mile to a bus stop and a half-mile to a train station, although in practice a portion of transit riders will walk somewhat more.
Acceptable walking distances tend to be affected by: People tend to walk farther if transit service is frequent, and vehicles and stations are comfortable and attractive. Nathan McNeil, et al. Pushkarev and Jeffrey M. GanForecasting Transit Walk Accessibility: APTA describes factors that affect the transit area of influence, which refers to the area around stops and stations where land use development tends to be more transit-oriented and households tend to own fewer vehicles and rely significantly on public transit.
These factors include the type and quality of transit service, area walkability and street design, land use patterns, and other supportive policies. The station is located in the downtown core, which has relatively high-density commercial and residential development, typically at least four stories.
Around that is mixed medium-density development consisting of two to four story apartments, townhouses and small-lot single-family homes. Outside of that is a ring of single-family residential on 5, to 12, square-foot lots, with some apartments and neighborhood commercial buildings where appropriate, such as along busier streets.
Of course, there are many possible variations: Table 3 illustrates the types of densities involved.
Note that Transit-Oriented Development does not require that all residents living in high density apartments; in a typical project about half of all residents can living in single-family housing, including some with quarter-acre lots suitable for gardening enthusiasts.The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more.
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