Non discretionary factors and imprecise data in

Experiences From An African Country. Ghana and other countries in West and Central Africa have the highest prevalence of SCD and related disorders in the world. Lack of SCD Clinics in hospitals to provide specialist care for sickle cell patients. Lack of capacity building of Health Care Workers eg.

Non discretionary factors and imprecise data in

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The Battle for Elite College Admissions As a direct consequence, the war over college admissions has become astonishingly fierce, with many middle- or upper-middle class families investing quantities of time and money that would have seemed unimaginable a generation or more ago, leading to an all-against-all arms race that immiserates the student and exhausts the parents.

The absurd parental efforts of an Amy Chua, as recounted in her bestseller Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, were simply a much more extreme version of widespread behavior among her peer-group, which is why her story resonated so deeply among our educated elites.

Even billionaires, media barons, and U. Senators may weigh their words and actions more carefully as their children approach college age.

And if such power is used to select our future elites in a corrupt manner, perhaps the inevitable result is the selection of corrupt elites, with terrible consequences for America. Thus, the huge Harvard cheating scandal, and perhaps also the endless series of financial, business, and political scandals which have rocked our country over the last decade or more, even while our national economy has stagnated.

ORDER IT NOW Just a few years ago Pulitzer Prize-winning former Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Golden published The Price of Admission, a devastating account of the corrupt admissions practices at so many of our leading universities, in which every sort of non-academic or financial factor plays a role in privileging the privileged and thereby squeezing out those high-ability, hard-working students who lack any special hook.

An admissions system based on non-academic factors often amounting to institutionalized venality would seem strange or even unthinkable among the top universities of most other advanced nations in Europe or Asia, though such practices are widespread in much of the corrupt Third World.

Or consider the case of China. There, legions of angry microbloggers endlessly denounce the official corruption and abuse which permeate so much of the economic system. But we almost never hear accusations of favoritism in university admissions, and this impression of strict meritocracy determined by the results of the national Gaokao college entrance examination has been confirmed to me by individuals familiar with that country.

This perhaps explains why so many sons and daughters of top Chinese leaders attend college in the West: During the s, the established Northeastern Anglo-Saxon elites who then dominated the Ivy League wished to sharply curtail the rapidly growing numbers of Jewish students, but their initial attempts to impose simple numerical quotas provoked enormous controversy and faculty opposition.

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Therefore, the approach subsequently taken by Harvard President A. Lawrence Lowell and his peers was to transform the admissions process from a simple objective test of academic merit into a complex and holistic consideration of all aspects of each individual applicant; the resulting opacity permitted the admission or rejection of any given applicant, allowing the ethnicity of the student body to be shaped as desired.

As a consequence, university leaders could honestly deny the existence of any racial or religious quotas, while still managing to reduce Jewish enrollment to a much lower level, and thereafter hold it almost constant during the decades which followed.

As Karabel repeatedly demonstrates, the major changes in admissions policy which later followed were usually determined by factors of raw political power and the balance of contending forces rather than any idealistic considerations.

Non discretionary factors and imprecise data in

For example, in the aftermath of World War II, Jewish organizations and their allies mobilized their political and media resources to pressure the universities into increasing their ethnic enrollment by modifying the weight assigned to various academic and non-academic factors, raising the importance of the former over the latter.

Indeed, Karabel notes that the most sudden and extreme increase in minority enrollment took place at Yale in the years —69, and was largely due to fears of race riots in heavily black New Haven, which surrounded the campus.

Philosophical consistency appears notably absent in many of the prominent figures involved in these admissions battles, with both liberals and conservatives sometimes favoring academic merit and sometimes non-academic factors, whichever would produce the particular ethnic student mix they desired for personal or ideological reasons.

Different political blocs waged long battles for control of particular universities, and sudden large shifts in admissions rates occurred as these groups gained or lost influence within the university apparatus: Yale replaced its admissions staff in and the following year Jewish numbers nearly doubled.

Despite these plain facts, Harvard and the other top Ivy League schools today publicly deny any hint of discrimination along racial or ethnic lines, except insofar as they acknowledge providing an admissions boost to under-represented racial minorities, such as blacks or Hispanics.

But given the enormous control these institutions exert on our larger society, we should test these claims against the evidence of the actual enrollment statistics. Jews were a high-performing group, whose numbers could only be restricted by major deviations from an objective meritocratic standard.

Since their strong academic performance is coupled with relatively little political power, they would be obvious candidates for discrimination in the harsh realpolitik of university admissions as documented by Karabel, and indeed he briefly raises the possibility of an anti-Asian admissions bias, before concluding that the elite universities are apparently correct in denying that it exists.

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Princeton sociologist Thomas J. Espenshade and his colleagues have demonstrated that among undergraduates at highly selective schools such as the Ivy League, white students have mean scores points higher on the SAT scale than their black classmates, but Asian students average points above whites.

The former gap is an automatic consequence of officially acknowledged affirmative action policies, while the latter appears somewhat mysterious. Fortunately, we can investigate the plausibility of these claims by examining the decades of officially reported enrollment data available from the website of the National Center for Educational Statistics NCES.

Harvard had always had a significant Asian-American enrollment, generally running around 5 percent when I had attended in the early s. However, from that year forward, the Asian numbers went into reverse, generally stagnating or declining during the two decades which followed, with the official figure being ORIGINAL ARTICLE Technology selection in the presence of imprecise data, weight restrictions, and nondiscretionary factors Reza Farzipoor Saen Received: 28 August /Accepted: 2 April / Published online: 1 May Read "Non-discretionary and discretionary factors and scale in data envelopment analysis, European Journal of Operational Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.

For the first time the imprecise data and non-discretionary factors are considered simultaneously with free disposability assumption. An application of the methodology has been performed on a set of data retrieved from the information of 29 sales agents. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Technology selection in the presence of imprecise data, weight restrictions, and nondiscretionary factors Reza Farzipoor Saen Received: 28 August /Accepted: 2 April / Published online: 1 May JAFTA AJ: Introduction [1] This is an application for leave to appeal against the judgment of the Cape High Court dismissing an application brought by the applicant for an order reviewing and setting aside a decision of the first respondent, the City of Cape Town (the City), in terms of which the City approved the building plans submitted to it by the second respondent, on behalf of the second.

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