Introduction The Kingdom of Lesotho is a landlocked country totally encircled within the Republic of South Africa in the southern part of Africa and is located at 29 30 S, 28 30 E. The country measures approximately 30 sq. It has a population of approximately 2 million people;
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Abstract State franchise laws prohibit auto manufacturers from making sales directly to consumers. This paper advocates eliminating state bans on direct manufacturer sales in order to provide automakers with an opportunity to reduce inventories and distribution costs by better matching production with consumer preferences.
Much attention in the plans has centered on getting labor costs under control. Among other measures addressed are ways to cut distribution costs. As part of its cost-cutting effort, GM has announced that it will reduce its dealership network from over 6, dealers today to 4, The cost of the auto distribution system in the United States has been estimated as averaging up to 30 percent of vehicle price.
Such sales might range from consumers' simply ordering assembled vehicles of their choice directly from automakers to a scenario along the lines of the "Dell Direct" build-to-order model that revolutionized the personal computer production and sale process.
GM initiated a build-to-order sales model in Brazil for its Chevrolet Celta economy car over eight years ago. Inthe Celta was among the sales leaders in Brazil. These bans on direct manufacturer sales are part of a broad array of state laws that bar manufacturer ownership of dealers and regulate entry and exit of dealers through territorial restrictions and provisions on dealer termination.
Analysis of the economic effects of these laws has led some to conclude that they harm consumers and should be eliminated. Then the essential features of the direct manufacturer distribution model are described and compared with the traditional method of selling autos.
Discussion of the benefits of a direct distribution model to auto consumers and manufacturers follows, along with economic analysis of some of the concerns of dealers. A conclusion addresses the question of federal involvement in this issue. The Auto Dealer Franchise System Early in the evolution of the auto industry direct manufacturer sales to consumers were not uncommon.
At that time, production processes had not yet been standardized and industry sales volumes were low.
Introduction by Ford of the assembly line technique early in the twentieth century enabled high-volume production and ushered in the era of mass-market sales in the United States. Ever since then manufacturers have sold cars through franchised dealerships. Selling through dealerships has offered several benefits to manufacturers historically.
Auto production is a capital-intensive business and a franchise system allowed manufacturers to concentrate their resources upstream while accessing capital through franchise fees from independent entrepreneurs at the retail level.
Economies of scale in auto production also required having relatively few, large manufacturing operations located near essential supplies like steel.
This contrasted with the nationwide distribution network needed to reach consumers, who could be more effectively served through local dealerships in a better position to assess demand in particular markets and to provide service and repairs.
Since running a dealership can require making a substantial investment in real estate and assets like showrooms and service facilities, the franchise system also had to offer terms that would make it attractive to dealers. This was accomplished voluntarily by contract, through franchise agreements, even prior to enactment of state franchise laws.
Typically such franchise agreements give a dealer exclusive rights to a particular geographic sales territory of a manufacturer. This type of arrangement allows dealers to realize a return on their investment while giving them incentives to undertake advertising and promotional activities and to provide services, like showroom displays, test drives and other types of consumer information, valuable to manufacturers in marketing their vehicles.
With the advent of the internet, some of the mutually beneficial nature of the franchise system for manufacturers and dealers has diminished, as information and access to services historically provided primarily by dealers has become more readily available.
Online buying services are an obvious example. In addition, a variety of auto information, including pricing data and reviews, can be found online from sites like Edmunds and Consumer Reports.
This raises the prospect of disintermediation, broadly defined as direct-to-consumer sales through reduction or elimination of the role of retailers.
With respect to autos, unlike the situation with books and CDs, most customers probably will continue to want some hands-on contact with the product before purchasing, likely implying a continuing, though possibly changed, role for dealers.
Since the internet can potentially provide manufacturers with better information on consumer preferences than the traditional local franchised dealer, direct manufacturer sales may be one way through which that changed dynamic occurs.Aug 28, · How to Write a Rationale for a Research Paper.
Writing a research paper can be tough at all stages. The rationale is no different. However, this guide will instruct you on how to write a killer research rationale, including ways to avoid the three biggest pitfalls of rationales/5(63).
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, Adopted (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.
Legal Research Paper Series NON HUMAN ANIMALS AND THE LAW: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ANIMAL LAW RESOURCES AT THE STANFORD LAW LIBRARY By Rita K. Lomio and J. Paul Lomio. This is a list of Canadians, people who are identified with Canada through residential, legal, historical, or cultural means, grouped by their area of notability.
Research & writing for assignments. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. The third part should give the reader a quick summary of the form that the parts of the research paper is going to take and should include a condensed version of the discussion.
Method This should be the easiest part of the paper to write, as it is a run-down of the exact design and methodology used to perform the research.