From The Saturday Review of Literature, July 6, You know you have to read "between the lines" to get the most out of anything. I want to persuade you to do something equally important in the course of your reading. I want to persuade you to write between the lines. Unless you do, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading.
About Adler Alfred Adler: Theory and Application Alfred Adlerworld renowned philosopher and psychiatrist, stressed the need to understand individuals within their social context.
During the early 's, Adler began addressing such crucial and contemporary issues as equality, parent education, the influence of birth order, life style, and the holism of individuals. Adler believed that we all have one basic desire and goal: Adler developed the first holistic theory of personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy that was intimately connected to a humanistic philosophy of living.
His lectures and books for the general public are characterized by a crystal clear common sense. His clinical books and journal articles reveal an uncommon understanding of mental disorders, a deep insight into the art of healing, and a great inspiration for encouraging optimal human development.
According to Adler, when we feel encouraged, we feel capable and appreciated and will generally act in a connected and cooperative way.
When we are discouraged, we may act in unhealthy ways by competing, withdrawing, or giving up. It is in finding ways of expressing and accepting encouragement, respect, and social interest that help us feel fulfilled and optimistic.
Adlerian theory and practice have proven especially productive as applied to the growth and development of children. Adlerians believe that "a misbehaving child is a discouraged child" and that helping children to feel valued, significant, and competent is often the most effective strategy in coping with difficult child behaviors.
Adlerian Psychology focuses on people's efforts to compensate for their self-perceived inferiority to others. These feelings of inferiority may derive from one's position in the family constellation, particularly if early experiences of humiliation occurred; a specific physical condition or defect existed; or a general lack of social feeling for others was present.
Adlerians are concerned with understanding the unique and private beliefs and strategies one's life style that each individual creates in childhood. This cognitive schema and life style serve as the individual's reference for attitudes, behaviors, and one's private view of self, others, and the world.
It is when we have looked at our early life experiences, examined the patterns of behavior that repeat themselves in our lives, and the methods by which we go about trying to gain significance and belonging that healing, growth, and change occur.
As articulated by noted Adlerian psychotherapist Henry Stein, the theory and application of Adlerian Psychology have as their lynchpins seven critical ideas: Unity of the Individual Thinking, feeling, emotion, and behavior can only be understood as subordinated to the individual's style of life, or consistent pattern of dealing with life.
The individual is not internally divided or the battleground of conflicting forces. Each aspect of the personality points in the same direction.
Goal Orientation There is one central personality dynamic derived from the growth and forward movement of life itself. It is a future-oriented striving toward a goal of significance, superiority, or success.
In mental health, it is a realistic goal of socially useful significance or superiority over general difficulties. In mental disorders, it is an unrealistic goal of exaggerated significance or superiority over others. The early childhood feeling of inferiority, for which one aims to compensate, leads to the creation of a fictional final goal which subjectively seems to promise future security and success.
The depth of the inferiority feeling usually determines the height of the goal which then becomes the "final cause" of behavior patterns.
Self-Determination and Uniqueness A person's fictional goal may be influenced by hereditary and cultural factors, but it ultimately springs from the creative power of the individual, and is consequently unique.
Usually, individuals are not fully aware of their goal.Classics in the History of Psychology. An internet resource developed by Christopher D. Green York University, Toronto, Ontario ISSN (Return to Classics index). Freda Adler with Herbert Marcus Adler. Adler, F. and Adler, H.M. Sisters in Crime: The Rise of the New Female Criminal New York and London: McGraw-Hill Contents: Prologue - Changing patterns - Female passivity: genetic fact or cultural myth?
Since the rise of the social-behaviorist approach to personality and its elaboration with cognitive concepts following “the cognitive revolution,” psychodynamic theories, usually identified with Sigmund Freud, have taken a beating.
In Jung’s own words, from his collected works, he indicates that the collective unconscious “is an image of the world which has taken aeons to form.
Alfred Adler’s Personality Theory and Personality Types. The question of what drives us—what great force underlies our motivation as individuals, propelling us forward through all manner of trying circumstance—was a matter of longtime fascination for psychologist Alfred Adler.
PTypes - description of the Mercurial Personality Type with links to noteworthy examples.