McGovern, born inwas pastor of the local Wesleyan Methodist Church there. But when I walked away from it, I had an enormous feeling of satisfaction that I had taken the thing off the ground and landed it without tearing the wings off.
Ancient Greece[ edit ] In Ancient Greeceseveral philosophers and historians analyzed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism. Traditionally, the Greek concept of " politeia " was rendered into Latin as res publica. Consequently, political theory until relatively recently often used republic in the general sense of "regime".
There is no single written expression or definition from this era that exactly corresponds with a modern understanding of the term "republic" but most of the essential features of the modern definition are present in the works of PlatoAristotleand Polybius.
These include theories of mixed government and of civic virtue. For example, in The RepublicPlato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue aiming for the good together with personal virtue 'just man' on the part of the ideal rulers.
Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers Socrates or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a political system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta, but avoided some of the defects that affected them.
Ancient Rome[ edit ] Both Livya Roman historian, and Plutarchwho is noted for his biographies and moral essays, described how Rome had developed its legislation, notably the transition from a kingdom to a republic, by following the example of the Greeks.
Some of this history, composed more than years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, may be fictitious reconstruction.
The Greek historian Polybiuswriting in the mid-2nd century BCE, emphasized in Book 6 the role played by the Roman Republic as an institutional form in the dramatic rise of Rome's hegemony over the Mediterranean. Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE.
In one of these works, De re publicaCicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia.
The modern term "republic", despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica. Among the several meanings of the term res publica, it is most often translated "republic" where the Latin expression refers to the Roman state, and its form of government, between the era of the Kings and the era of the Emperors.
This Roman Republic would, by a modern understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic, even if not coinciding entirely. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system because it included features like a systematic separation of powers. Romans still called their state "Res Publica" in the era of the early emperors because, on the surface, the organization of the state had been preserved by the first emperors without significant alteration.
Several offices from the Republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person.
These changes became permanent, and gradually conferred sovereignty on the Emperor. Cicero's description of the ideal state, in De re Publica, does not equate to a modern-day "republic"; it is more like enlightened absolutism.
His philosophical works were influential when Enlightenment philosophers such as Voltaire developed their political concepts. In its classical meaning, a republic was any stable well-governed political community.
Both Plato and Aristotle identified three forms of government: First Plato and Aristotle, and then Polybius and Cicero, held that the ideal republic is a mixture of these three forms of government.
The writers of the Renaissance embraced this notion. Cicero expressed reservations concerning the republican form of government.
Eventually, that opposition led to his death and Cicero can be seen as a victim of his own Republican ideals.Rep. Allen West, a Florida Republican, was recently captured on video asserting that there are “78 to 81” Democrats in Congress who are members of the Communist Party.
Of course, it’s not. Oct 29, · The biggest major parties in America is the Democratic party (DNC) and the Republican Party however the democrats regained control of the U.S.
house and us senate in the elections and the White house in the year elections. Jun 08, · A consistent theme is that the focus on white defections from the Democratic Party masks an even more threatening trend: declining turnout . A Balanced System Of The Republican Party And The Democratic Party Words | 7 Pages.
Tiffany Edwards While democracy, to be a balanced system, should be two or more parties who hold different beliefs, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party have a long history of feuding when it comes to debating the major issues.
I reached my threshold where no amount of hypothetical Republican bigotry or greed could approach the hypocrisy and corruption I saw rotting Democrats.
Hitler ENTJ Merve Emre. In an essay that she wrote in but never published called “My Country ’Tis of Thee—The Cult of Leadership,” Katharine.