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Highlight and copy the desired format. On Epidemiology and Geographic Information Systems: A Review and Discussion of Future Directions.
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2 2 Abstract Geographic information systems are powerful automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data.
While the systems have been in development for more than 20 years, recent software has made them substantially easier to use for those outside the field. The systems offer new and expanding opportunities for epidemiology because they allow an informed user to choose between options when geographic distributions are part of the problem.
Even when used minimally, these systems allow a spatial perspective on disease.
|Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.||Waller University of Minnesota [Editor's Note:|
Used to their optimum level, as tools for analysis and decision making, they are indeed a new information management vehicle with a rich potential for public health and epidemiology. Geographic information systems GIS are "automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data" 1.
Common to all GIS is a realization that spatial data are unique because their records can be linked to a geographic map. The component parts of a GIS include not just a database, but also spatial or map information and some mechanism to link them together.
GIS has also been described as the technology side of a new discipline, geographic information science 2which in turn is defined as "research on the generic issues that surround the use of GIS technology, impede its successful implementation, or emerge from an understanding of its potential capabilities.
Few would argue that GIS has little to offer the health sciences.
On the other hand, like other new technologies, GIS involves concepts and analytic techniques that can appear confusing and can lead to misunderstanding or even overselling of the technology. In this article, we attempt to bridge the gaps between the principles of geographic information science, the technology of GIS, the discipline of geography, and the health sciences.
Our intent is to introduce to the epidemiologist a set of methods that challenge the "visual" half of the scientist's brain. Computers were first applied to geography as analytical and display tools during the s 3.
GIS emerged as a multidisciplinary field during the s.
The discipline's heritage lies in cartography's mathematical roots: Several factors combined in the s to reinforce GIS development. First, computers became more accessible and less costly.
Second, mainframe computers gave way to minicomputers and then workstations, which gave great power to the user and included the access to networks that has led to its own revolution in technology. Third, the types of user interface required to operate technical software changed from batch, command-line, and remote access to windowing systems and "point and click" graphic interaction.
What had been expensive, slow, and difficult has rapidly become inexpensive, fast, and easy to use. A final but essential precondition to GIS development was the broad availability of public domain digital map data, in the form of maps of the landscape from the U. Geologic Survey and for census areas from the U.system (GIS) technology to assess and protect the health of the populations they serve, understand the impacts of the environment on human health, and improve environmental health services delivery.
Dec 20, · GIS has also been described as the technology side of a new discipline, geographic information science, which in turn is defined as "research on the generic issues that surround the use of GIS technology, impede its successful implementation, or emerge from an understanding of its potential capabilities." Recently, GIS has .
The use of spatial epidemiology and geographical information systems (GIS) facilitates the incorporation of spatial relationships into epidemiological investigations of marine mammal diseases and conservation medicine.
Spatial epidemiology is the study of the spatial variation in disease risk or. Geographic information systems (GIS) provide ideal platforms for the convergence of disease-specific information and their analyses in relation to population settlements, surrounding social and health services and the natural environment.
use GIS regularly get so much more from ﬁ eld experiences than those unable or unwilling to put down their cell phones or other distractions. Next is the spatial pattern factor.
Geographical information systems (GIS) technology, therefore, is a tool of great inherent potential for health research and management in Africa. The spatial modelling capacity offered by GIS is directly applicable to understanding the spatial variation of disease, and its relationship to environmental factors and the health care system.