Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
History[ edit ] Text annotation may be as old as writing on media, where it was possible to produce an additional copy with Thesis in reading comprehension reasonable effort.
It became a prominent activity around AD in Talmudic commentaries and Arabic rhetorics treaties. In the Medieval era, scribes who copied manuscripts often made marginal annotations that then circulated with the manuscripts and were thus shared with the community; sometimes annotations were copied over to new versions when such manuscripts were later recopied.
Thus, print technologies support the circulation of annotations primarily as formal scholarly commentary or textual footnotes or endnotes rather than marginal, handwritten comments made by private readers, though handwritten comments or annotations were common in collaborative writing or editing.
Text annotation in Information Technology IT systems raises technical issues of access, linkage, and storage that are generally not relevant to paper-based text annotation, and thus research and development of such systems often addresses these areas.
In their article "From the Margins to the Center: The Future of Annotation," scholars Joanna Wolfe and Christine Neuwirth identify four primary functions that text annotations commonly serve in the modern era, including: Readers may annotate to help interpret a text, to call attention to a section for future reference or reading, to support memory and recall, to help focus attention on the text as they read, to work out a problem related to the text, or create annotations not specifically related to the text at all.
For example, a mother may leave marks inside a book to draw the attention of her child to a particular theme or concept; thanks to the development of audio annotations, parents may now leave notes for children who are just starting to read and may struggle with textual annotations.
For example, Ananda Gunawardena, Aaron Tan, and David Kaufer conducted a pilot study to examine whether annotating documents in Classroom Salon, a web-based annotation and social reading platform, encouraged active reading, error detection, and collaboration in a computer science course at Carnegie Mellon University.
Studies have indicated that social annotation functions, including commenting, information sharing, and highlighting, can support instruction designed to foster collaborative learning and communication, as well as reading comprehension, metacognitionand critical analysis.
Several studies indicated that students enjoyed using social annotation tools, and that it improved motivation in the course. Similarly, copyeditors often make marginal annotations or notes that explain or suggest revisions or are directed at the author as questions or suggestions commonly called "queries".
Annotation structure[ edit ] The structural components of any annotation can be roughly divided into three primary elements: The body of an annotation includes reader-generated symbols and text, such as handwritten commentary or stars in the margin.
The anchor is what indicates the extent of the original text to which the body of the annotation refers; it may include circles around sections, brackets, highlights, underlines, and so on. Annotations may be anchored to very broad stretches of text such as an entire document or very narrow sections such as a specific letter, word, or phrase.
The marker is the visual appearance of the anchor, such as whether it is a grey underline or a yellow highlight. An annotation that has a body such as a comment in the margin but no specific anchor has no marker.
Footnote interfaces that display annotations below the corresponding text Aligned annotations that display comments and notes vertically in the text margins, sometimes in multiple columns or as a "sidebar" layer Interlinear annotations that attach annotations directly into a text Sticky note interfaces, where annotations appear in popup dialogs over the source text Voice annotations, in which reviewers record annotations and embed them within a document Pen or digital-ink based interfaces that allow writing directly on a document or screen Annotation interfaces may also allow highlighting or underlining, as well as threaded discussions.
In the s and s, a number of such systems were built in the context of librariespatent officesand legal text processing. Their design led researchers to produce taxonomies of annotation forms.
Annotation functionality has been present in text processing software for many years through inline notes displayed as pop-ups, footnotes, and endnotes; however, it is only recently that functionality for displaying annotations as marginalia has appeared in programs such as OpenOffice. Personal or standalone annotation include word processing software that supports embedded or anchored text annotations as well as Adobe Acrobatwhich in addition to commenting allows highlights, stamps, and other types of markup.
Web annotation Tim Berners-Lee had already implemented the concept  of directly editing web documents in in WorldWideWebthe first web browser,  but later ported versions removed this collaborative ability. A different approach to distributed authoring consists in first gathering many annotations from a wide public, and then integrate them all in order to produce a further version of a document.
This approach was pioneered by Stetthe system put in place to gather comments on drafts of version 3 of the GNU General Public License. This system arose after a specific requirement, which it served egregiously, but was not so easily configurable as to be convenient for annotating any other document on the web.
Sincethe non-profit Hypothes Is Project  has offered the free, open web annotation service Hypothes. Both webpages and PDFs can be annotated. Other web-based text annotation systems are collaborative software for distributed text editing and versioning, which also feature annotation and commenting interfaces.
For example, HyLighter supports synchronous and asynchronous interactions, general commenting, comment tagging, threaded discussions and comment filtering.
Other annotation tools under these category are more focused on NLP tasks as Named-entity recognitionrelationship extraction or normalization.
Some tools support manual tagging of data or automatic annotations via supervised learning. The annotations are displayed as pop-ups with an anchor in the text.The question–answer relationship (QAR) strategy helps students understand the different types of questions.
By learning that the answers to some questions are "Right There" in the text, that some answers require a reader to "Think and Search," and that some answers can only be answered "On My Own," students recognize that they must first consider the question before developing.
Reading comprehension refers to whether or not a student understands a text that they have read. At higher levels, comprehending a text involves making inferences and understanding implicit ideas. ENHANCING ENGLISH READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH A TEXT STRUCTURE READING STRATEGY CALL PROGRAM Suranaree University of Technology has approved this thesis submitted in.
The first frame or the input frame includes the topics about the reading comprehension and education. determining the level of reading comprehension of the Grade 8 Underachievers.
The third frame or the output frame includes the Reading Comprehension of Grade 8 Students of Morong National High School determined. analysis and interpretation of data.
reading motivation and reading comprehension, in the context of genetic influences. The analyses are based on tester-administered measures for general reading skills (i.e.
word identification, comprehension, and fluency), math skills, and. The present study investigated the effect of ICT and more specifically CALL on the quality of students’ reading comprehension in an Iranian academic setting.