Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
Online source Formatting your bibliography While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways: Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized.
The author's last name appears first Smith, Betty in a bibliography. Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods.
Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.
Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.
In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title or other item is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order the title of the book or article, for example and use that to alphabetize the entry.
Sample bibliography A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries.
Don't use boxes around each entry, however. The entries are the same as those used in the notes. Works Cited Boyer, Paul S. University of Wisconsin Press, Last modified May 9, Mastering the Art of French Cooking. Central Intelligence Agency, Madison, WI, 20 April Encyclopedia Britannica Company, Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y.
The Everyday Writing Center. Utah State University Press, Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, A Book Forged in Hell: Princeton University Press, Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Harvard University Press,Bibliography.
The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper.
Websites of Primary Resources. The Library of Congress American Memory Project AMP is a rich, searchable database of written and spoken words, sound recordings, still.
In your paper, you'd present evidence from the original text (the primary source) to support this, and then you'd cite a secondary source that also supported your idea. Or, if you're writing a history paper, you can find writings from other scholars who support your interpretation of a particular historical event or .
A researcher must, therefore, vet the qualifications of the secondary source as it relates to the topic — for instance, a plumber writing an article about grammar may not be the most credible resource, whereas an English teacher would be more qualified to comment on the subject.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. A secondary source is any source about an event, period, or issue in history that was produced after that event, period or issue has passed.
Aside from a textbook, the most commonly assigned secondary source is a scholarly monograph - a volume on a specific subject in the past, written by an expert.